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Nanoparticle Toxicity Panel


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Nanoparticles are between 1-100nm in diameter. They are being used in a wide variety of different applications, including, but not limited to, optical, electronic and biomedical. Nanoparticles bridge the gap between the atomic and molecular levels. Nanoparticles also exhibit special properties. In the biomedical field, they can be used in drug delivery, cosmetics with potential applications in cellular therapy and regenerative medicine.


However, recent studies presented at toxicological meeting and publications have shown that nanoparticles can also be toxic to living and primary tissues and organs. As a result, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has established the Nanotechnology Characterization Laboratory (NCL) which has published recommendations for assessing the properties and characteristics of nanoparticles that might be used to treat patients. An "Assay Cascade" has been recommended that includes the in vitro characterization of the particles and their ligands.


Many of the recommended cell-based assays are available as contract services from HemoGenix. In addition, HemoGenix can also provide more advanced, sensitive, reliable and reproducible alternative assays with greater strigency than those suggested by the NCL.




NCL Recommended In Vitro Nanoparticle Characterization Assays and Alternatives
Recommended Assay NCL Protocol No. Alternative Assay
Mouse granulocyte-macrophage (GM) colony-forming cell (CFU) assay ITA-3 HALO®-Tox HT and/or HALO®-Tox Real Time (RT) for multiple cell populations and species
Leukocyte proliferation assay ITA-6 ImmunoGlo-Tox HT from different tissues and species
Nitric oxide (NO) production by RAW264.7 macrphage cell line ITA-7 NO production from macrophage cell lines and primary macrophages

Chemotaxis assay using the human

HL-60 cell line

ITA-8 Calcein-AM real-time fluorescence chemotaxis using HL-60 and primary human peripheral blood or bone marrow cells
Zymosan phagocytosis assay using luminol on the HL-60 cell line ITA-9 Same, but including primary human peripheral blood or bone marrow cells
Analysis of IL-8, IL-1b, TNF alpha, IGN gamma by normal human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by ELISA ITA-10, 22, 23, 24, 25 Same, but including bone marrow

Effects on peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation using flow cytometry

ITA-14 Same

Oxidative stress on Hep-G2 hepatocyte using the glutathione assay

GTA-3 Same, but using also primary hepatocytes and/or other cells

Lipid peroxidation assay on Hep-G2 cells


Same, but using also primary hepatocytes and/or other cells
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay on Hep-G2 hepatocytes GTA-7

Similar, but using also primary hepatocytes and/or other cells

Kidney cytotoxicty assay using MTT and LDH assays on LLC-PK1 kidney cells

GTA-1 STEMGlo-Tox HT and LDH fluorescence assays using kidney cell lines or primary kidney cells

Hep-G2 hepatocyte cytotoxicity assay using MTT and LDH assays

GTA-2 HepatoGlo-Tox HT and LDH fluorescence assays using Hep-G2 and primary hepatocytes
Kidney apoptosis assay for caspase 3 using LLC-PK1 cells  GTA-5 Similar, but also using primary kidney cells

Caspase 3  and 3/7 apoptosis assays on Hep-G2 cells

GTA-6, GTA-14 Simular, but also using primary hepatocytes. Luminescence caspase 3/7 assay


For more information and HemoGenix capabilities, please contact HemoGenix.